Ropinirole (INN; trade names Requip, Repreve, Ronirol, Adartrel) is a dopamine agonist of the non-ergoline class of medications.
The reference site for Ropinirole
WHAT IS ROPINIROLE?
Ropinirole is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat Parkinson’s disease. It can improve your ability to move and decrease shakiness (tremor), stiffness, slowed movement, and unsteadiness. It may also decrease the number of episodes of not being able to move (“on-off syndrome”).
Additionally, ropinirole is also used to treat restless legs syndrome (RLS). It may improve your sleep by decreasing the urge to move your legs as well as decrease the uncomfortable feelings in the legs.
This medication works by helping to restore the balance of a certain natural substance (dopamine) in the brain.
Ropinirole is sold under the brand name Requip®.
Brand Name(s): Requip
CAS nº: 91374-21-9
(ro PIN ih rol)
The sections below will provide you with more specific information and guidelines related to ropinirole and its correct use. Please read them carefully.
FDA approval of ropinirole was first granted on September 22nd 1997, and following this it also received approval to treat restless leg syndrome on May 4th 2005.
Ropinirole is the only medication in the United States with an FDA-approved indication for the treatment of restless legs syndrome. It was made originally by Dr. Anil Patel, a famous pharmacist.
Ropinirole is available with a prescription under the brand name Requip®, but is also available under other brand or generic formulations.
Why is this medication prescribed?
Ropinirole is used alone or together with other medications to treat Parkinson’s disease. It works by improving your ability to move and helps decrease shakiness (tremor), stiffness, slowed movement, and unsteadiness. It may also decrease the number of episodes of not being able to move (“on-off syndrome”).
Furthermore, this medication is also used to treat restless legs syndrome (RLS). It may improve your sleep by decreasing the urge to move your legs, and at the same time decrease the unpleasant feelings in the legs.
Mechanism of Action:
Ropinirole is an agonist at both dopamine D2-receptors and D3-receptors (D3>D2). Although affinity of ropinirole is higher at D3-receptors than at D2-receptors, the relevance of binding at D3-receptors in Parkinson’s disease is unknown. It is believed, however, that the efficacy of ropinirole is due to stimulation of post-synaptic D2-receptors within the caudate-putamen in the brain. Ropinirole is also an agonist at peripheral dopamine D2-receptors – domperidone (an antagonist at D2-receptors) prevents the orthostatic response to ropinirole.
The precise mechanism of action of ropinirole as a treatment for restless legs syndrome (RLS) is unknown, however, neuropharmacological evidence suggests primary dopaminergic system involvement. Positron emission tomographic (PET) studies suggest that a mild striatal presynaptic dopaminergic dysfunction may be involved in the pathogenesis of RLS.
Other uses for this medicine
This medication has not been approved for any alternative uses other than those mentioned in the product information section.
Dosage and using this medicine
Ropinirole comes as a pill that is to be taken orally.
Take this medication exactly as it was prescribed for you. Do not take the medication in larger amounts, or take it for longer than recommended by your doctor. It is very important to know that the dose and timing of ropinirole in treating Parkinson’s diease is different from the dose and timing in treating RLS.
You may receive ropinirole in a starting kit that has each pill marked with the day you should take it. Do not mix these pills up because they each contain different amounts of ropinirole. The pills must be taken in order so that you gradually receive higher doses of the medication.
You may have a brief increase in side effects whenever your dose is changed.
Ropinirole can be taken with or without food. Nausea is a common side effect of ropinirole, and taking the medicine with food may lessen this effect.
It may be several weeks or months before you notice that this medicine working. Continue taking the medicine until your doctor recommends that you stop.
Furthermore, do not stop using ropinirole or change your dose without first talking to your doctor. You may have side effects such as fever, muscle stiffness, and confusion if you stop the medication suddenly or if you change doses.
What special precautions should I follow?
BEFORE TAKING ROPINIROLE:
Some people taking ropinirole have fallen asleep during normal daytime activities such as working, talking, eating, or driving. You may fall asleep suddenly, even after feeling alert. Tell your doctor if you have any problems with daytime sleepiness or drowsiness. If you are unsure of how this medicine will affect you, be careful if you drive or do anything that requires you to be awake and alert.
Tell your doctor if you have heart disease, kidney disease, or liver disease. If you have any of these conditions, you may not be able to use ropinirole, or you may need a dosage adjustment or special tests during treatment.
Moreover, please inform your doctor if you are using any of the following drugs: levodopa; ciprofloxacin (Cipro®); a medication used to treat nausea and vomiting or mental illness, such as chlorpromazine (Thorazine®), fluphenazine (Prolixin®), mesoridazine (Serentil®), perphenazine (Trilafon®), thioridazine (Mellaril®), promazine (Sparine®), trifluoperazine (Stelazine®), thiothixene (Navane®), or haloperidol (Haldol®); or an estrogen (such as Premarin®, Prempro®, Estratest®, Ogen®, Estraderm®, Climara®, Vivelle®, estradiol, and others). If you are using any of these drugs, you may not be able to use ropinirole, or you may need dosage adjustments or special tests during treatment.
There may be other drugs not listed above that can affect ropinirole use. Tell your doctor about all the prescription and over-the-counter medications you use, including vitamins, minerals, herbal products, and drugs prescribed by other doctors. Do not start using a new medication without first telling your doctor.
This medication is in the FDA pregnancy category C. This means that it may be harmful to an unborn baby. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant during treatment.
Furthermore, it is not known whether ropinirole passes into breast milk or if it could harm a nursing baby. However, ropinirole may reduce breast milk production so do not take ropinirole without telling your doctor that you are breast-feeding a baby.
Ropinirole may cause hallucinations (the sensation of hearing or seeing something that is not there), most commonly among elderly people. Call your doctor if you experience hallucinations.
Additionally, this medication can cause side effects that may impair your thinking or reactions. Be careful if you drive or do anything that requires you to be awake and alert.
Avoid smoking, which can make ropinirole less effective.
Avoid using other medicines that make you sleepy (such as alcohol, cold medicine, pain medication, muscle relaxers, and medicine for seizures, depression or anxiety). They can add to sleepiness caused by ropinirole.
Avoid drinking alcohol, which can increase some of the side effects of ropinirole.
Dizziness or drowsiness may be more likely to occur when you rise from a sitting or lying position. Rise slowly and use caution to prevent a fall.
What should I do if I forget a dose?
Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and take the medicine at the next regularly scheduled time.
It is strongly advised never to take extra medicine to make up for the missed dose.
What side effects can this medication cause?
Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction:
swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat
Call your doctor at once if you have any of these serious side effects:
Call your doctor promptly if you fall asleep during a daily activity, if you faint, or if you have hallucinations (hearing or seeing something that is not there). Your doctor may want you to stop taking ropinirole, or take a lower dose.
Other, less serious side effects may be more likely to occur, such as:
vomiting, upset stomach or loss of appetite
worsened RLS symptoms early in the morning
diarrhea or constipation
drowsiness or confusion
sleep problems (insomnia)
agitation or anxiety
Side effects other than those listed here may also occur. Talk to your doctor about any side effect that seems unusual or that is especially bothersome.
Some people using ropinirole have developed a gambling habit. It is not known whether ropinirole actually causes this effect. Nevertheless, please talk with your doctor if you believe you have an unusual urge to gamble while you are taking ropinirole.
What storage conditions are needed for this medicine?
Always keep this medication in the container it came in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Store it at room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom).
Please remember to throw away any medication that is outdated or no longer needed. Should you have any doubts, talk to your pharmacist about the proper disposal of your medication.
In case of an emergency/overdose
In the case of an overdose, call your local poison control center on 1-800-222-1222. However, if the victim has collapsed or is not breathing, then please call the local emergency services immediately on 911.
Symptoms of an overdose may include:
PICTURES OF ROPINIROLE PILLS
Below you will find images and specific information on the principal types of ropinirole that exist, including their respective brand name(s), strength, inscription codes, manufacturers and/or distributors.
The information below includes general information and guidelines for patients taking this medication and should never be used to substitute professional medical advice that can be provided by a qualified physician or family doctor.
Strength(s): 0.5 MG
Imprint: SB 4891
Strength(s): 1 MG
Imprint: SB 4892
Strength(s): 2 MG
Imprint: SB 4893
Strength(s): 3 MG
Imprint: SB 4895
Strength(s): 4 MG
Imprint: SB 4896
Strength(s): 5 MG
Imprint: SB 4894